Was world-famous iceman mummy the victim of foul play?
Cadaver proves he suffered head blow before death
One of the most-studied ancient human specimens ever, Ötzi the Iceman mummy died roughly 5,300 years ago. Ever since hikers stumbled upon his astonishingly well-preserved frozen body in the Alps in 1991, researchers have extensively studied his remains in order to get a better idea of what primitive man was like. Now, it appears that Ötzi may have been the victim of foul play . a murder mystery extending over thousands of years.
A wound reveals that Ötzi was hit in the shoulder with a deadly artery-piercing arrow. In addition, an undigested meal in the Iceman's stomach suggests he was ambushed, scientists say.
A CAT scan conducted a few years ago showed dark spots at the back of the mummy's cerebrum, indicating Ötzi also suffered a blow to the head that knocked his brain against the back of his skull during the fatal attack.
From what has been previously determined, Ötzi was a 45-year-old, hide-wearing, tattooed agriculturalist native of Central Europe. He suffered from heart disease, joint pain, tooth decay and probably Lyme disease before he died - but none of these were factors in his death. Scientists say he likely suffered head injury before he died roughly 5,300 years ago, according to a new protein analysis of his brain tissue.
In the new study, scientists who looked at pinhead-sized samples of brain tissue from the corpse found traces of clotted blood cells, suggesting Ötzi indeed suffered bruising in his brain shortly before his death.
The major piece missing from this seeming murder mystery is that it remains unclear whether Ötzi's brain injury was caused by being bashed over the head or by falling after being struck with the arrow, the researchers say.
The study was focused on proteins found in two brain samples from Ötzi, recovered with the help of a computer-controlled endoscope. Of the 502 different proteins identified, 10 were related to blood and coagulation, the researchers said. They also found evidence of an accumulation of proteins related to stress response and wound healing.
Research in 2012 showed traces of a clotting protein called fibrin, which appears in human blood immediately after a person sustains a wound but disappears quickly. The fact that it was still in Ötzi's blood when he died suggests he didn't survive long after the injury.
Proteins are less susceptible to environmental contamination than DNA, and, in the case of mummies, they can reveal what kinds of cells the body was producing at the time of death.
"Proteins are the decisive players in tissues and cells, and they conduct most of the processes which take place in cells," Andreas Tholey, a scientist at Germany's Kiel University and a researcher on the new Ötzi study, said in a statement.
"Identification of the proteins is therefore key to understanding the functional potential of a particular tissue," Tholey added. "DNA is always constant, regardless of from where it originates in the body, whereas proteins provide precise information about what is happening in specific regions within the body."
© 2013, Distributed by NEWS CONSORTIUM.
Pope Francis Prayer Intentions for December 2013
General Intention: Victimized Children. That children who are victims of abandonment or violence may find the love and protection they need.
Missionary Intention: Prepare the Savior's Coming. That Christians, enlightened by the Word incarnate, may prepare humanity for the Savior's coming.
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