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(DE MARINIS)

The name of an ancient and noble family of the Republic of Genoa, distinguished alike in the Island of Chios, one of its dependencies, where it possessed many beautiful and valuable estates. Besides giving to the Church one pope, Urban VII , it adorned the Dominican Order with several eminent theologians and distinguished religious.

(1) LEONARDO MARINI

Archbishop, born 1509 on the island of Chios, in the Ægean Sea; died 11 June, 1573, at Rome. He entered the order in his native place, and, after his religious profession , made his studies in the Convent of Genoa with great distinction, obtaining finally the degree of Master of Sacred Theology. He was a man of deep spirituality, and was esteemed the most eloquent of contemporary orators and preachers. Paul III, recognizing his piety and extraordinary executive ability, decided to choose him as coadjutor with the right of succession to the Bishop of Perugia, but death frustrated his plans. On 5 March, 1550, Julius III created him titular Bishop of Laodicea and administrator of the Diocese of Mantua. In 1553 he was appointed papal nuncio to the court of Charles V of Spain, where, by his fearless defence of the rights and authority of the Holy See, he effected a complete adjustment of the religious troubles of the country. On 26 Feb., 1562, Pius IV elevated him to the metropolitan See of Lanciano, and the same year, at the request of Cardinal Hercules Gonzaga, appointed him papal legate to the Council of Trent, in all the deliberations of which he took a prominent part. On the termination of the council, after visiting his archdiocese, he was sent to the court of Maximilian II to adjust certain ecclesiastical matters, and, on his return, the pope determined to raise him to the cardinalate, but death prevented him from carrying out his plans. Marini now resigned his diocesan duties and retired to the castle of his brother to combat by pen and prayer the errors of the reformers. Pius V, however, not slow in recognizing his brilliant talents, appointed him to the See of Alba and made him Apostolic Visitor of twenty-five dioceses, a proof of the anxiety of the pontiff to carry into effect the Tridentine reforms. In 1572 he was sent by Gregory XIII on a mission to Philip II of Spain and Sebastian of Portugal to secure from these monarchs a renewal of their alliance against the Turks. His mission was successful. He returned to Rome to be elevated to the cardinalate, but died two days after his return. By order of the pope and the Council of Trent, Marini, with the assistance of two of his brethren, Egidio Foscarari and Francesco Foreiro, composed the famous Roman Catechism , "Catechismus Romanus vulgo dictus ex decreto Concilii Tridentini compositus et Pii V jussu editus" (Rome, 1566). He was also a member of the commission of theologians appointed by Pius V to prepare a new and improved edition of the Breviary (1568) and of the Missal (1570). By order of Pius IV he revised also the Rules and Constitutions of the Barnabite Order .

(2) TOMMASO MARINI

Grand-nephew of the foregoing, date of birth unknown; died 1635 at Naples. He was of an exceptionally religious family, of which three sons entered the Order of St. Dominic and four daughters took the religious habit. Tommaso, the eldest made his novitiate and studies in the Minerva convent at Rome. In 1608 he was made master of sacred theology, and was assigned the chair of that science in his convent. He was secretary at three general chapters of the order. In 1611 he became socius to the general with the title of Provincial of the Holy Land. In 1615 and 1622 he was definitor at the chapters of Bologna and Milan respectively, and in 1618 was appointed visitor for the German and Bohemian, and in 1634 for the Sicilian, provinces. In 1623 and 1624 he was vicar of the Roman provinces, in which he succeeded in introducing a severer discipline.

(3) GIOVANNI BAPTISTA MARINI

Brother of the foregoing, born 28 Nov., 1597, at Rome ; died there, 6 May, 1669. He entered the Dominican order at the age of sixteen, and, after his religious profession , studied philosophy and theology at the universities of Salamanca and Alcalá. On the completion of these he returned to Rome, taught theology at the Minerva convent, obtained the degree of Master of Theology, and was appointed by Urban VIII in 1628 secretary of the Congregation of the Index. In the long conscientious management of this office he received not a little abuse from censured authors, being especially persecuted by the learned but bitter opponent of the Index, Theophilus Raynaud, S.J. , who, in the pseudonymous work "De immunitate Cyriacorum ( sc . the Dominicans ) a censura diatribae Petri a Valleclausa", published a pungent satire replete with personal invectives against the Dominicans, the alleged controlling element of the Inquisition and the Index, but principally against the secretary of the latter. The work was condemned on 20 June, 1662. On 17 Nov., 1664, a similar fate befell two works published by Dominicans in reply to Raynaud and in defence of themselves, the Index, and its secretary. The first of these was that of Vincent Baron, "Apologia pro sacra Congregatione Indicis ejusque secretario ac Dominicanis" (Rome, 1662), the other that of John Casalas, "Candor lilii seu Ordo FF. Prædicatorum a calumniis et contumeliis Petri a Valleclausa vindicatus" (Paris, 1664). During his office as secretary he provided for the publication of "Index librorum prohibitorum cum decretis omnibus a S. Congregatione emanatis post indicem Clementis VIII". In 1650 he was elected general of the order, which office he held till his death. At the request of Alexander VII, he composed also a "Tractatus de Conceptione B. M. Virginis", which still remains unpublished.

(4) DOMENICO MARINI

Theologian and brother of the two preceding, born 21 Oct., 1599, at Rome ; died 20 June, 1669, at Avignon. On 2 Feb., 1615, he followed his two brothers into the Dominican order , where he soon became noted for his piety and learning. Having finished his academic studies in Rome, he was sent for his theological studies to the universities of Salamanca and Alcalá. On his return to Rome, he was assigned the chair of theology in the Minerva convent, but, learning that a severer discipline prevailed in the convent at Toulouse, he went there, taught theology for some time, and was then appointed to teach the same in the convent of St. Honoré at Paris. Recalled to Rome by the general, Nicolao Ridolphi, he was made master of theology and regens primarius of studies in his former convent. Later he became prior, and in that capacity demolished the old, and in its place erected the present Minerva convent. On 18 Oct., 1648, Innocent X created him Archbishop of Avignon. His attention here was first directed towards providing the university — which, since the return of the popes to Rome, had practically lost all significance — with a representative theological faculty. From his private funds he founded chairs of philosophy and theology and supplied them with professors of his own order thus restoring to the institution the teachings of St. Augustine and Aquinas. He is the author of "Expositio commentaria in I, II et III partem S. Thomæ" (Lyons, 1663-5).


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